This essay focuses on the complex relationship between intersexuality and the law. It aims to highlight the issues that are emerging in European legal systems due to the lack of specific measures or legislation regarding gender identity, and the ad hoc legislation which does exist but fails to distinguish transsexualism from intersexuality.
The most pressing issue that the law should tackle is the performance of unnecessary, irreversible, and invasive surgery on intersex children. Indeed, most of European Member States do not explicitly legally ban this practice.
First, international and European Union law is considered noting that they do not provide for any legally binding instrument for the protection and recognition of intersex human right. However, in recent years they have shown to be progressively responsive towards intersex individuals.
Then, three legislative models are identified and the national legal frameworks corresponding to them analysed. The first, adopted by Germany and Austria, is based on the introduction of a third sex. The second is contained in Belgian legislation, and establishes the self-determination principle, which permits the choice of a preferred gender on identity documents, without particular requirements being met. The third approach has been adopted only by Malta so far. It is characterised by multiple measures and, accordingly, it is more systemic and holistic. In fact, the Maltese legislation explicitly recognises the intersex condition, and it conceives sex as a spectrum, thus going beyond gender binarism. Moreover, it prohibits discrimination based on sex characteristics, establishes the self-determination principle, and it bans irreversible, unnecessary, and aesthetic surgery from being carried out on intersex people.
Lastly, theoretical analysis on the role the law should play in tackling intersex issues is presented. Alongside, some factual cases of human rights violations on intersex people a way forward is proposed, considering the most interesting proposals and insights from the intersex community.
According to the literature (Oddone 2013; Ciccone 2014; Cosenza 2015; Magaraggia 2015; Polizzi & Oliveri 2015), the representations of gender-based violence in Italian social advertisements are strongly linked to stereotypical imaginaries of the physical dimension, domestic violence, and the removal of victims' agency, as well as heteronormative and ableist ones. In my qualitative research on 12 advertisements (from 2006 to 2019), I tried to identify representations that go beyond hegemonic terms, with particular attention to the dimensions of racism, ableism and homolesbobitransphobia, applying the intersectional approach, to reacha more complex understanding of how identities and power relations are constructed in visual media. My analysis sought to answer the question of whether social advertisements contain images that challenge stereotypes and prejudices regarding violences, or whether they reiterate certain representational mechanisms that are the result of the phenomenon they are intended to combat. The hypotheses on their verifiability ‒ and therefore on the scarce capacity to challenge the preconceptions of those advertisements that by their function should promote social change ‒ were tested on the basis of the following variables, according to a qualitative methodology that refers to socio-semiotic visual analysis in search of counter-hegemonic narratives: promoting subjects, ways of representing the places of violence, representation of the violences themselves, identities and bodies and communicative style. My research shows that, in Italy, it is difficult to carry out campaigns against gender violence that exclude or question stereotypes. On the one hand, there is a gap between innovative aims and the use of stereotypical language, which is typical of social advertising’s form. On the other hand, there are considerable differences between the various promoters: there is a tension between the different structures and aims of the promoters surveyed, between public service advertising and advocacy.
The work outlines the profile of Armanda Guiducci (Naples 1923 - Milan1992): philosopher, anthropologist, writer and literary critic. Through various archive researches the author's literary biography has been reconstructed, which returns the image of an eclectic writer, with composite intellectual activity and a wide and varied production. At the same time the work studies seven essays by Guiducci on the condition of women which, although they share a purely anthropological approach, belong to different genres. Therefore, underlining analogies and differences, the thesis highlights how each of them declines certain themes, as the point of view assumed by the author and the use of some common stylistic traits; with the aim of providing an even more detailed profile.
The work aims to analyze the current legislation on the transmission of the surname to the children in the Italian legal system, to verify if this rule respects the principle of equality between the parents and the principle of the protection of the child's personal identity.
The rule of automatic transmission of the father's surname was indeed a glaring symbol of discrimination between parents, which reflected a deep-rooted background of inequality between men and women that can still be seen today.
The decision of the Corte Costituzionale n. 286/2016 stated that parents can give their child the surname of the father, followed by the surname of the mother if both are in agreement. Nevertheless, there are issues that a jurisprudential decision, even if crucial for the matter, cannot resolve. In fact, the judgment doesn't solve the question of the accumulation of surnames in future generations, and doesn't decide whether the children of the same family should have the same surname.
After a careful analysis of the issues that currently remained unresolved, hypotheses will be formulated to find solutions that are both respectful of the right of equality between parents and of the personal right of the child to have both branches of his family recognized in his surname. Lastly, the answers obtained from the interviews regarding the matter of the "double surname", in which several Italian municipalities participated, will be examined and will be subject to reflection.
This thesis displays an ethnographic research aimed at the exploration of the «politics of masculinity», which represent a phenomenon of «mobilizations and struggles where the meaning of masculine gender is at issue, and, with it, men’s position in gender relations» (Connell, 1996, 205). Given the shortage of academic and public debate, which historically concerns the themes of masculinity, the research focuses on the concept of crisis and its spread. In addition to its contribution to the growth of media interest and to the development of men’s studies in recent years, this notion has fostered the diffusion of the male voice in the shape of specific associations. This thesis takes into account two Italian experiences that are significant for their theoretical contrast about men’s studies. Bounded up with the social constructionism, Maschile in gioco (Rome) is a group that practises self-consciousness and belongs to the network of Maschile Plurale association, whereas Campo maschile (Brescia) is configured as a project in continuity with the Maschi Selvatici association and with its typically «essentialist» positions. From a methodological point of view, the participant observation – a functional technique for the investigation of form and content of the two case studies – is accompanied by the technique of «focused interview». These qualitative techniques are useful for studying experiences of which literature has already highlighted the contrast in terms of discursive repertoires: in the first case they are aimed at the deconstruction of masculinity, in the second at its reconstruction. However, by enhancing the «continuity» between content and form, the research lays particular stress on a common – even though oriented towards opposite directions – work, which involves the two case studies as all-male socialization agencies. In the end, the research emphasizes the recurrence of a model of masculinity close to intimacy – not far from the concept of «caring masculinities» (Elliott, 2015) – which unites the two case studies and is able, perhaps, to challenge the deep-rooted patriarchal system of our society.
La pubblicazione di questo secondo volume di Donne per l’Europa e la contemporanea riedizione del primo volume (del 2013) consentono di evidenziare un itinerario di pensiero e discussione lungo la strada indicata da Ursula Hirschmann e dal gruppo da lei fondato nel 1975 a Bruxelles. “Femmes pour l’Europe” si prefiggeva lo scopo di portare avanti l’ispirazione del Manifesto di Ventotene del 1941 per un’Europa intesa come patria di giustizia e uguaglianza, aprendola alla prospettiva di genere.
Questo volume, che raccoglie gli atti delle giornate per Ursula Hirschmann organizzate dal 2013 al 2017, è completato dalla Lectio Magistralis tenuta da Rosi Braidotti all’Istituto Europeo di Firenze nel 2001, una riflessione su genere, identità e multiculturalismo in Europa.
Nel 2007, in occasione dell’Anno Europeo delle Pari Opportunità, il CIRSDe promosse, con l’appoggio della Rappresentanza in Italia della Commissione Europea, l’istituzione delle Giornate annuali «Donne per l’Europa», titolo che riprende il nome del gruppo «Femmes pour l’Europe», fondato da Ursula Hirschmann negli anni 1970. L’intento era – ed è rimasto – quello di invitare annualmente una/o studiosa/o di respiro internazionale a tenere una Lezione sul tema, e un gruppo di altre/i partecipanti a riflettere sul contributo diretto delle donne a pensare, costruire e immaginare l’Europa.
Questo libro è una riedizione di Donne per l’Europa (Rosenberg & Sellier, 2013) e raccoglie gli atti delle prime quattro giornate per Ursula Hirschmann, organizzate nel 2007, 2008, 2009 e 2012, oltre a una serie di altri contributi di studiose che hanno dedicato i loro recenti studi a questa figura femminile.
Lo scritto analizza i modelli legislativi esistenti in materia di prostituzione sul panorama europeo, soffermandosi su quei delicati profili giuridici inerenti il bilanciamento dei diritti fondamentali racchiusi nelle singole Costituzioni nazionali. In particolare l'analisi riguarda l'ordinamento russo, svedese, italiano e tedesco, che rispettivamente riflettono il proibizionismo, il neoproibizionismo, l'abolizionismo e la regolamentazione della prostituzione.

The work deals with the existing relationship between prostitute's fundamental rights and all the legal frameworks which are in force in Europe.
Chapter I examines some legal, thorny issues concerning prostitution, such as the disposal of the body, the notion of human dignity, the equality principle, the general clause of good customs, the right to work and to health and. In Chapters II-V these issues are transposed into the analysis of four European States' Constitution and legislations.
The Russian prohibitionism is characterised by the prostitutes' administrative prosecution on the basis of public morality and health.
The Swedish neo-prohibitionism aims at establishing a gender policy, which is grounded on a new social order; as a result, Swedish law subjects clients to sanctions, while considering prostitutes as victims who deserve a special protection.
Italian abolitionism provides for a freedom to prostitute yourself which must be in compliance with the general clause of public morality, while prosecuting all those activities that are ancillary and apt to violate the prostitutes' self-determination; in any case, the legislative aim is to respect and fulfil all the constitutional fundamental rights.
The German regulatory framework regards prostitution as an expression of the occupational freedom provided by the Basic Law, in order to promote the individual's substantial self-determination and to protect prostitutes' fundamental rights.
Finally the work ends with a short consideration on whether there is - or there is not - a legal pattern which is apt to protect all the fundamental rights to whom prostitutes are entitled.
Il volume raccoglie i contributi presentati al Convegno «Riproduzione e Relazioni. La surrogazione di maternità al centro della questione di genere», svoltosi a Torino il 25 maggio 2018 grazie all'iniziativa congiunta di GenIUS (Rivista di studi giuridici sull'orientamento sessuale e l'identità di genere) e del CIRSDe (Centro Interdisciplinare di Ricerche e Studi delle Donne e di Genere dell’Università di Torino).
L'iniziativa aveva preso le mosse dal comune intento di interpretare attraverso il diritto le molteplici relazioni intersoggettive che la surrogazione di maternità fa sorgere, nonché dalla scelta condivisa di prediligere l’approccio di genere nell'analisi di tali relazioni, al fine di disvelare la spesso taciuta e insuperabile asimmetria tra i sessi nella procreazione. L’adozione della prospettiva di genere nell'inquadramento giuridico dei rapporti che si instaurano tra genitori intenzionali, madre biologica e nascitura/o o tra questi e le diverse figure professionali che rendono possibile la gestazione per altri, è stata dunque intesa come fil rouge idoneo a legare l’analisi della relazione di gravidanza effettuata da studiose e studiosi secondo le proprie specificità disciplinari.
How has the image of the woman changed over time? Can we say that certain "old" stereotypes have lapsed?
In this analysis I’ve reflected about the theme, comparing some modern cinematographic revisitations and the corresponding written texts in the field of the fantastic genre, to understand if and how the female image (and not only) has changed from a century to another (in this case between the 19th and the 21st century).
The research has developed through the semiotic and gender studies, in order to analyze the diversities and the characteristics of the various texts observed (written and audiovisual) and to realize how the idea of feminine is changed and, maybe, evolved, proposing new type of characters (and also a new and complex dialogue with the masculine counterpart).
It emerges, indeed, the necessity to reflect on these stereotypes, on the modalities of development over time and on the difficulty that still today, despite certain changes, remains in thinking them (and thinking differently).
Because, in the end, what does it mean male and female? What makes us who we are?